【高考英语和四级哪个难】高考英语复习难点解析:动词-ing形式的双重语法功能

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  动词-ing形式可用作动名词和现在分词,动名词由动词+ing构成,具有动词和名词的性质,在句中起名词作用,可作主语、宾语、表语和定语。现在分词有一般时和完成时,在句中可以作定语、表语、状语和补语。
  ●难点磁场
  1.(★★★★)Though________money,his parents managed to send him to university.
  A.lacked B.lacking of
  C.lacking D.lacked in
  2.(★★★★★)How about the two of us________a walk down the garden?
  A.to take B.take
  C.taking D.to be taking
  3.(★★★★)________is a good form of exercise for both young and old.
  A.The walk B.Walking
  C.To walk D.Walk
  4.(★★★★)-I must apologize for________ahead of time.
  -That"s all right.
  A.letting you not know B.not letting you know
  C.letting you know not D.letting not you know
  ●案例探究
  1.-You were brave enough to raise objections at the meeting.
  -Well,now I regret________that.
  A.to do B.to be doing
  C.to have done D.having done
  命题意图:考查学生对动词regret的掌握,属于四星级题目。
  知识依托:regret doing结构表示后悔做了某件事。
  错解分析:C项迷惑性较大。
  解题方法与技巧:从对话所表达的内容来看,在会上提反对意见的人对其行为感到后悔。
  答案:D
  2.________such heavy pollution already,it may now be too late to clean up the river.
  A.Having suffered B.Suffering
  C.To suffer D.Suffered
  命题意图:考查学生对分词的掌握,属于五星级题目。
  知识依托:现在分词的完成时表示分词的动作或状态在谓语动词所表示的动作或状态之前发生。
  错解分析:B项迷惑性较大。现在分词的一般时表明分词表示的动作或状态和句子谓语表示的动作或状态同时发生或进行。
  解题方法与技巧:分清现在分词的一般时和完成时所表示的含义不同。
  答案:A
  ●锦囊妙计
  1.动名词
  1)动名词的用法:
  ①作主语。例如:
  Seeing is believing. Collecting information is very important to business man. It is no use sitting here waiting.
  注意:动名词和不定式都可以作主语,动名词作主语表示一般或抽象的多次性行为,不定式作主语往往表示具体的或一次性的动作。例如:
  Playing with fire is dangerous.(泛指玩火)
  To play with fire will be dangerous.(指一具体动作)
  但在it is no use/good,not any use /good,uselss等后一般用动名词。
  ②作表语。例如:
  My job is teaching English.
  ③作宾语。例如:
  He is fond of playing football.
  He finished reading the book yesterday.
  ④作定语,a sitting room
  2)动名词的复合结构:动名词复合结构的一般规则是:
  ①逻辑主语是有生命的名词:作主语时,必须用名词或代词所有格,作宾语时(尤其在口语中),也可用名词普通格或人称代词宾格。例如:
  Their coming to help us was a great encour agement to us.(主语)
  She didn"t mind Jack(him)coming late.(宾语)
  They insist on Tom"s(his)staying longer.(介宾)
  ②逻辑主语是无生命名词时,只用名词普通格。例如:
  Is there any hope of our team winning the match?
  ③逻辑主语是指示代词或不定代词this, that, somebody, someone, nobody, none, anybody, anyone时,只用普通格。例如:
  She was disturbed by somebody shouting outside.
  3)动名词的时态:动名词的时态分一般时和完成时两种。如果动名词的动作没有明确地表示出时间是与谓语动作同时发生或在谓语动作之前发生,用动名词的一般时。例如:
  We are interested in collecting stamps.
  His coming will be of great help to us.
  如果动名词的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前,通常用动名词的完成时态。例如:
  We were praised for having finished the work ahead of time.
  但是在某些动词或词组后,常用动名词的一般形式,尽管其动作是在谓语所表示的动作之前发生。例如:
  On hearing the bad news,she couldn"t help crying.
  I shall never forget seeing the Great Wall for the first time。
  4)动名词的语态:动名词的被动语态也有一般时与完成时两种。当主语是这个动名词所表示的动作对象时,动名词用被动语态。被动语态由"being+过去分词"或"having been+过去分词"构成。例如:
  The young man came in without being noticed. He likes being helped.
  He was afraid of being left at home.
  The house showed no sign of having been damaged.
  有些动名词在句中是主动形式,但有被动的含义。例如:
  The house requires/needs/wants repairing.
  注:在to be worth doing句型中,动名词doing表示的是被动意义。例如:
  If a thing is worth doing,it is worth doing well.
  2.分词
  1)分词的时态和语态:
  ①分词分为现在分词和过去分词,现在分词有一般时和完成时。一般时表示和谓语动词所表示的动词同时发生的动作;完成时(having +过去分词)表示在谓语动词所表示的动作之前发生的动作。例如:
  Being a student,he was interested in books.
  He hurried home,looking behind him as he went.
  Having studied in the university for 3 years,he knows the place very well.
  ②现在分词有一般时和完成时,且有主动语态和被动语态。当句子的主语是分词动作的承受者时,分词用被动语态。如果要强调分词的动作先于谓语动作,就用分词完成时的被动形式。例如:
  The question being discussed is of great importance.Having been criticized by the teacher,Li Ming gave up smoking.
  过去分词表示在谓语动词之前发生的动作,本身有被动的含义,所以只有一般式,没有完成时。
  2)分词的用法:
  ①作定语。分词短语作定语时,放在被修饰的名词之后;单个分词作定语时,放在被修饰的名词之前。例如:
  China is a developing country.The man standing at the window is our teacher.Polluted air and water are harmful to people"s health.
  注意:现在分词作定语时,表示动作正在进行或与谓语动词所表示的动作几乎同时发生。
  如果两个动作有先有后,一般不能用现在分词作定语,而要用定语从句。例如:
  The teacher criticized the student who had broken the window.
  ②作状语:分词或分词短语作状语时,可以表示时间、原因、结果、条件、让步、行为方式、伴随状况等。例如:
  Being too old ,he couldn"t walk that far.
  While reading the book,he nodded from time to time.(时间)
  The teacher stood there surrounded by the students.(方式)
  Standing on the building,you can see the whole city. (条件)
  注意:a.分词短语作状语,其逻辑主语须与句子的主语一致。b.表示时间关系的分词短语有时可由连接词while或when引导。c.有时,"with(without)+名词(或代词宾语)+分词"的结构表示伴随情况。例如:
  The spy sat on the ground,his hands tied behind his back.
  d.当分词的逻辑主语与主句的主语不同时,分词必须有自己的主语。例如:
  Time permitting,I will finish another lesson.Her glasses broken,she couldn"t see the words on the blackboard.
  ③作表语。例如:
  The new"s inspiring.You shouldn"t try to stand up if you are badly hurt.
  ④作宾语补足语。例如:
  We saw the teacher making the experiment.John will get his room painted.
  注意:在see,hear,watch,feel,observe,have,listen to,notice等动词后,既可以用现在分词构成复合宾语,也可以用不定式构成复合宾语,但两者的含义是有差别的。用现在分词表示动作正在发生(即处于发生的过程中,还没有结束),用不定式表示动作发生了(即动作全过程结束了)。例如:
  I saw the girl getting on the bus.
  I saw the girl get on the bus and drive off.
  He had his foot hurt in the fall.He had his clothes washed.(他叫别人洗了衣服)
  We had the fire burning all day.(我们使火燃烧了一整天)
  注意:"have +宾语+现在分词"表示主体使客体处于某种状态或干什么事;"have+宾语+过去分词"表示动作是别人做的或与主体意志无关。
  3)过去分词、现在分词一般被动式及完成被动式作状语时的比较:
  ①过去分词与现在分词一般被动式作状语表示伴随动作或行为方式时,两者无多大区别,习惯上常用过去分词。例如:
  (Being)Seized with a sudden fear,she gave a scream.
  He came in,followed by a group of students.
  在某些情况下,二者则是有区别的。例如:
  Badly polluted ,the water cannot be drunk.(原因)
  Being written in haste,the composition is full of mistakes.(原因,强调写的过程,故应用现在分词一般被动式)
  ②过去分词与现在分词完成被动式皆表示已完成的动作,在意义上无多大区别。例如:
  (Having been)weakened by storms,the bridge was no longer safe.但有时是有区别的。例如:
  Having been deserted(抛弃)by his guide,he couldn"t find his way through the jungle.(为了强调已完成的动作)。
  Asked to stay,I couldn"t very well refuse.(这里asked可能意味着having been asked,也可能意味着when/since I was asked,但若用having been asked,就不会有歧义)下面句子中过去分词表示的时间与谓语动词所表示的时间相同,所以不能代之以强调先于谓语动词的现在分词完成被动式。例如:
  Covered with confusion,I left the room.我很窘地离开了房间。
  United,we stand;divided,we fall.团结则存,分裂则亡。
  ③有时现在分词一般时的被动式与其完成时的被动式完全同义,皆表示已完成的动作,这时用一般时的被动时较好。例如:
  Being surrounded (Having been surrounded),the enemy troops were forced to surrender.
  4)过去分词与现在分词意义上的区别:及物动词的过去分词表示"被动、完成"(不及物动词的过去分词只表示"完成"),现在分词表示"主动、进行"。动作动词的现在分词所描写的常是一种"动态"情景;其过去分词所描写的往往是一种静态情景,表示动作发生后事物所处的状态,试看下面的例子:
  When the autumn wind blows,you can see yellow leaves falling off trees.(树叶正在下落)
  He fell onto the fallen leaves inches thick and didn"t hurt himself(落叶)
  There stands a pine tree,covering the entrance of the cave.(正覆盖着,表示动作)
  We found his forehead covered with sweat.(描写满脸是汗的状态)
  ●歼灭难点训练
  1.(★★★★)________the big snake,the little girl stood under the tree________out of her life.
  A.Seeing;frightened B.Seeing;frightening
  C.Seen;frightened D.To see;frightening
  2.(★★★★★)A:Were you busy last weekend?
  B:Very.Rather than________time playing cards as usual,I devoted every effort to ________an advertisement.
  A.waste;make B.wasting;making
  C.to waste;make D.a waste of ;making
  3.(★★★★★)The manager has had some problems________whether they should borrow the money from the banker.
  A.to decide B.deciding
  C.decided D.having decided
  4.(★★★★)-How did you manage to get through the examination?
  - ________very hard.
  A.To work B.Working
  C.By working D.Work
  5.(★★★★)-What do you think of the speech?
  -The speaker said ________nothing worth________.
  A.nearly;listening to B.hardly;listening
  C.scarcely;listening to D.almost;listening to
  6.(★★★★)How many of us________a meeting is not important .
  A.attended B.attending
  C.to attend D.have attended
  7.(★★★★)I hate________their complaints all day.One of these days I"ll tell them what I really think.
  A.paying attention to B.to talk about
  C.listening to D.to have heard
  8.(★★★★★)Nobody________any more to say,the meeting was closed.
  A.having B.have
  C.had D.has
  9.(★★★★★) ________to sunlight for too much time will do harm to one"s skin.
  A.Exposed B.Having exposed
  C.Being exposed D.After being exposed
  10.(★★★★★)________all over the hills and around the lake are wild flowers of different kinds.
  A.To grow B.Growing C.Grown D.Grow
  11.(★★★★)-What"s made Tommy so upset?
  -I believe________the game.It shocked him so much.
  A.for losing B.lost
  C.losing D.because of losing
  12.(★★★★)The time he has devoted in the past ten years________the disabled is now considered ________of great value.
  A.to help;being B.to helping;to be
  C.help;to be D.helping;being
  13.(★★★★)He didn"t seem to mind________TV while he was trying to study.
  A.he easily watches B.his easy watching
  C.his easily watching D.hiseasilywatched.
  14.(★★★★)O"Neal works hard.He is often seen________heavily before his teammates have even arrived at practice.
  A.sweated B.to be sweated
  C.sweating D.being sweated
  15.(★★★★)________good,the food was soon sold out.
  A.Tasted B.Being tasted
  C.Tasting D.Having tasted
  16.(★★★★)With his son________,the old man felt unhappy.
  A.to disappoint B.to be disappointed
  C.disappointing D.being disappointed
  17.(★★★★★)Silver is the best conductor of electricity,copper________it closely.
  A.followed B.to follow C.following D.being followed
  18.(★★★★★)-Would you mind________me the dicionary?
  -Of couse not.But it is ________my reach.
  A.passing;out B.passing;beyond
  C.to pass;far away D.to pass;out of 
  19.(★★★★★)-Who gave you this message?
  -A man________himself Mr.Zhang.
  A.called B.calling C.calls D.is called
  动词-ing形式的双重语法功能
  动词-ing形式可用作动名词和现在分词,动名词由动词+ing构成,具有动词和名词的性质,在句中起名词作用,可作主语、宾语、表语和定语。现在分词有一般时和完成时,在句中可以作定语、表语、状语和补语。
  ●难点磁场
  1.(★★★★)Though________money,his parents managed to send him to university.
  A.lacked B.lacking of
  C.lacking D.lacked in
  2.(★★★★★)How about the two of us________a walk down the garden?
  A.to take B.take
  C.taking D.to be taking
  3.(★★★★)________is a good form of exercise for both young and old.
  A.The walk B.Walking
  C.To walk D.Walk
  4.(★★★★)-I must apologize for________ahead of time.
  -That"s all right.
  A.letting you not know B.not letting you know
  C.letting you know not D.letting not you know
  ●案例探究
  1.-You were brave enough to raise objections at the meeting.
  -Well,now I regret________that.
  A.to do B.to be doing
  C.to have done D.having done
  命题意图:考查学生对动词regret的掌握,属于四星级题目。
  知识依托:regret doing结构表示后悔做了某件事。
  错解分析:C项迷惑性较大。
  解题方法与技巧:从对话所表达的内容来看,在会上提反对意见的人对其行为感到后悔。
  答案:D
  2.________such heavy pollution already,it may now be too late to clean up the river.
  A.Having suffered B.Suffering
  C.To suffer D.Suffered
  命题意图:考查学生对分词的掌握,属于五星级题目。
  知识依托:现在分词的完成时表示分词的动作或状态在谓语动词所表示的动作或状态之前发生。
  错解分析:B项迷惑性较大。现在分词的一般时表明分词表示的动作或状态和句子谓语表示的动作或状态同时发生或进行。
  解题方法与技巧:分清现在分词的一般时和完成时所表示的含义不同。
  答案:A
  ●锦囊妙计
  1.动名词
  1)动名词的用法:
  ①作主语。例如:
  Seeing is believing. Collecting information is very important to business man. It is no use sitting here waiting.
  注意:动名词和不定式都可以作主语,动名词作主语表示一般或抽象的多次性行为,不定式作主语往往表示具体的或一次性的动作。例如:
  Playing with fire is dangerous.(泛指玩火)
  To play with fire will be dangerous.(指一具体动作)
  但在it is no use/good,not any use /good,uselss等后一般用动名词。
  ②作表语。例如:
  My job is teaching English.
  ③作宾语。例如:
  He is fond of playing football.
  He finished reading the book yesterday.
  ④作定语,a sitting room
  2)动名词的复合结构:动名词复合结构的一般规则是:
  ①逻辑主语是有生命的名词:作主语时,必须用名词或代词所有格,作宾语时(尤其在口语中),也可用名词普通格或人称代词宾格。例如:
  Their coming to help us was a great encour agement to us.(主语)
  She didn"t mind Jack(him)coming late.(宾语)
  They insist on Tom"s(his)staying longer.(介宾)
  ②逻辑主语是无生命名词时,只用名词普通格。例如:
  Is there any hope of our team winning the match?
  ③逻辑主语是指示代词或不定代词this, that, somebody, someone, nobody, none, anybody, anyone时,只用普通格。例如:
  She was disturbed by somebody shouting outside.
  3)动名词的时态:动名词的时态分一般时和完成时两种。如果动名词的动作没有明确地表示出时间是与谓语动作同时发生或在谓语动作之前发生,用动名词的一般时。例如:
  We are interested in collecting stamps.
  His coming will be of great help to us.
  如果动名词的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前,通常用动名词的完成时态。例如:
  We were praised for having finished the work ahead of time.
  但是在某些动词或词组后,常用动名词的一般形式,尽管其动作是在谓语所表示的动作之前发生。例如:
  On hearing the bad news,she couldn"t help crying.
  I shall never forget seeing the Great Wall for the first time。
  4)动名词的语态:动名词的被动语态也有一般时与完成时两种。当主语是这个动名词所表示的动作对象时,动名词用被动语态。被动语态由"being+过去分词"或"having been+过去分词"构成。例如:
  The young man came in without being noticed. He likes being helped.
  He was afraid of being left at home.
  The house showed no sign of having been damaged.
  有些动名词在句中是主动形式,但有被动的含义。例如:
  The house requires/needs/wants repairing.
  注:在to be worth doing句型中,动名词doing表示的是被动意义。例如:
  If a thing is worth doing,it is worth doing well.
  2.分词
  1)分词的时态和语态:
  ①分词分为现在分词和过去分词,现在分词有一般时和完成时。一般时表示和谓语动词所表示的动词同时发生的动作;完成时(having +过去分词)表示在谓语动词所表示的动作之前发生的动作。例如:
  Being a student,he was interested in books.
  He hurried home,looking behind him as he went.
  Having studied in the university for 3 years,he knows the place very well.
  ②现在分词有一般时和完成时,且有主动语态和被动语态。当句子的主语是分词动作的承受者时,分词用被动语态。如果要强调分词的动作先于谓语动作,就用分词完成时的被动形式。例如:
  The question being discussed is of great importance.Having been criticized by the teacher,Li Ming gave up smoking.
  过去分词表示在谓语动词之前发生的动作,本身有被动的含义,所以只有一般式,没有完成时。
  2)分词的用法:
  ①作定语。分词短语作定语时,放在被修饰的名词之后;单个分词作定语时,放在被修饰的名词之前。例如:
  China is a developing country.The man standing at the window is our teacher.Polluted air and water are harmful to people"s health.
  注意:现在分词作定语时,表示动作正在进行或与谓语动词所表示的动作几乎同时发生。
  如果两个动作有先有后,一般不能用现在分词作定语,而要用定语从句。例如:
  The teacher criticized the student who had broken the window.
  ②作状语:分词或分词短语作状语时,可以表示时间、原因、结果、条件、让步、行为方式、伴随状况等。例如:
  Being too old ,he couldn"t walk that far.
  While reading the book,he nodded from time to time.(时间)
  The teacher stood there surrounded by the students.(方式)
  Standing on the building,you can see the whole city. (条件)
  注意:a.分词短语作状语,其逻辑主语须与句子的主语一致。b.表示时间关系的分词短语有时可由连接词while或when引导。c.有时,"with(without)+名词(或代词宾语)+分词"的结构表示伴随情况。例如:
  The spy sat on the ground,his hands tied behind his back.
  d.当分词的逻辑主语与主句的主语不同时,分词必须有自己的主语。例如:
  Time permitting,I will finish another lesson.Her glasses broken,she couldn"t see the words on the blackboard.
  ③作表语。例如:
  The new"s inspiring.You shouldn"t try to stand up if you are badly hurt.
  ④作宾语补足语。例如:
  We saw the teacher making the experiment.John will get his room painted.
  注意:在see,hear,watch,feel,observe,have,listen to,notice等动词后,既可以用现在分词构成复合宾语,也可以用不定式构成复合宾语,但两者的含义是有差别的。用现在分词表示动作正在发生(即处于发生的过程中,还没有结束),用不定式表示动作发生了(即动作全过程结束了)。例如:
  I saw the girl getting on the bus.
  I saw the girl get on the bus and drive off.
  He had his foot hurt in the fall.He had his clothes washed.(他叫别人洗了衣服)
  We had the fire burning all day.(我们使火燃烧了一整天)
  注意:"have +宾语+现在分词"表示主体使客体处于某种状态或干什么事;"have+宾语+过去分词"表示动作是别人做的或与主体意志无关。
  3)过去分词、现在分词一般被动式及完成被动式作状语时的比较:
  ①过去分词与现在分词一般被动式作状语表示伴随动作或行为方式时,两者无多大区别,习惯上常用过去分词。例如:
  (Being)Seized with a sudden fear,she gave a scream.
  He came in,followed by a group of students.
  在某些情况下,二者则是有区别的。例如:
  Badly polluted ,the water cannot be drunk.(原因)
  Being written in haste,the composition is full of mistakes.(原因,强调写的过程,故应用现在分词一般被动式)
  ②过去分词与现在分词完成被动式皆表示已完成的动作,在意义上无多大区别。例如:
  (Having been)weakened by storms,the bridge was no longer safe.但有时是有区别的。例如:
  Having been deserted(抛弃)by his guide,he couldn"t find his way through the jungle.(为了强调已完成的动作)。
  Asked to stay,I couldn"t very well refuse.(这里asked可能意味着having been asked,也可能意味着when/since I was asked,但若用having been asked,就不会有歧义)下面句子中过去分词表示的时间与谓语动词所表示的时间相同,所以不能代之以强调先于谓语动词的现在分词完成被动式。例如:
  Covered with confusion,I left the room.我很窘地离开了房间。
  United,we stand;divided,we fall.团结则存,分裂则亡。
  ③有时现在分词一般时的被动式与其完成时的被动式完全同义,皆表示已完成的动作,这时用一般时的被动时较好。例如:
  Being surrounded (Having been surrounded),the enemy troops were forced to surrender.
  4)过去分词与现在分词意义上的区别:及物动词的过去分词表示"被动、完成"(不及物动词的过去分词只表示"完成"),现在分词表示"主动、进行"。动作动词的现在分词所描写的常是一种"动态"情景;其过去分词所描写的往往是一种静态情景,表示动作发生后事物所处的状态,试看下面的例子:
  When the autumn wind blows,you can see yellow leaves falling off trees.(树叶正在下落)
  He fell onto the fallen leaves inches thick and didn"t hurt himself(落叶)
  There stands a pine tree,covering the entrance of the cave.(正覆盖着,表示动作)
  We found his forehead covered with sweat.(描写满脸是汗的状态)
  ●歼灭难点训练
  1.(★★★★)________the big snake,the little girl stood under the tree________out of her life.
  A.Seeing;frightened B.Seeing;frightening
  C.Seen;frightened D.To see;frightening
  2.(★★★★★)A:Were you busy last weekend?
  B:Very.Rather than________time playing cards as usual,I devoted every effort to ________an advertisement.
  A.waste;make B.wasting;making
  C.to waste;make D.a waste of ;making
  3.(★★★★★)The manager has had some problems________whether they should borrow the money from the banker.
  A.to decide B.deciding
  C.decided D.having decided
  4.(★★★★)-How did you manage to get through the examination?
  - ________very hard.
  A.To work B.Working
  C.By working D.Work
  5.(★★★★)-What do you think of the speech?
  -The speaker said ________nothing worth________.
  A.nearly;listening to B.hardly;listening
  C.scarcely;listening to D.almost;listening to
  6.(★★★★)How many of us________a meeting is not important .
  A.attended B.attending
  C.to attend D.have attended
  7.(★★★★)I hate________their complaints all day.One of these days I"ll tell them what I really think.
  A.paying attention to B.to talk about
  C.listening to D.to have heard
  8.(★★★★★)Nobody________any more to say,the meeting was closed.
  A.having B.have
  C.had D.has
  9.(★★★★★) ________to sunlight for too much time will do harm to one"s skin.
  A.Exposed B.Having exposed
  C.Being exposed D.After being exposed
  10.(★★★★★)________all over the hills and around the lake are wild flowers of different kinds.
  A.To grow B.Growing C.Grown D.Grow
  11.(★★★★)-What"s made Tommy so upset?
  -I believe________the game.It shocked him so much.
  A.for losing B.lost
  C.losing D.because of losing
  12.(★★★★)The time he has devoted in the past ten years________the disabled is now considered ________of great value.
  A.to help;being B.to helping;to be
  C.help;to be D.helping;being
  13.(★★★★)He didn"t seem to mind________TV while he was trying to study.
  A.he easily watches B.his easy watching
  C.his easily watching D.hiseasilywatched.
  14.(★★★★)O"Neal works hard.He is often seen________heavily before his teammates have even arrived at practice.
  A.sweated B.to be sweated
  C.sweating D.being sweated
  15.(★★★★)________good,the food was soon sold out.
  A.Tasted B.Being tasted
  C.Tasting D.Having tasted
  16.(★★★★)With his son________,the old man felt unhappy.
  A.to disappoint B.to be disappointed
  C.disappointing D.being disappointed
  17.(★★★★★)Silver is the best conductor of electricity,copper________it closely.
  A.followed B.to follow C.following D.being followed
  18.(★★★★★)-Would you mind________me the dicionary?
  -Of couse not.But it is ________my reach.
  A.passing;out B.passing;beyond
  C.to pass;far away D.to pass;out of 
  19.(★★★★★)-Who gave you this message?
  -A man________himself Mr.Zhang.
  A.called B.calling C.calls D.is called

 

  

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